A mobile ad hoc network or a wireless ad hoc network is a kind of wireless network which is not centralized. These networks are ad hoc since they do not depend on any pre-existing structure such as routers in wired networks or access points in wireless networks. But here, in this case, there is a chain of nodes that play the important role of routing by forwarding the data to other nodes which makes the network connectivity a dynamic one. And it uses the routing algorithm. What are the different types of ad-hoc network? Ad hoc networks in computer systems- In the case of computers and specifically for the windows operating system, these ad hoc networks act as a communication system or setting, allowing computers to communicate directly among themselves without the help of any router. Access points Mobile ad hoc networks- On the other hand, mobile ad hoc networks are dynamic which is also self-configuring, where nodes move freely. These types of ad hoc network does not let us indulge in any kind of complexity in case of setting up infrastructure or any kind of administration. It provides ease for the devices to connect or create networks anywhere and at any time. The decentralized characteristic of the ad hoc networks makes it possible for a variety of applications in the case where central nodes are not suitable to be in use. It also improves the flexibility of networks as compared to that of the wireless networks. Smartphone ad hoc networks- Smartphone ad hoc networks or SPANs supports WiFi as well as Bluetooth and also the protocols as a part of the software which are commercially available in smartphones to create a peer to peer networks without the need of any kind of cellular or traditional wireless networks or be it any access point names. Span’s are quite different from the hub kind of networks like Wi-Fi direct as they basically support multi-hop relays and there is no such head as a leader and hence peers have the advantage of joining or leaving with their own choice without even destroying any of the network systems. Vehicular ad hoc networks- This is also abbreviated as “VANETs”. This is widely used as a communication system between two vehicles as well as roadside networking equipment. It could be compared to an artificial intelligence machine that helps the vehicles to behave in a disciplined or intelligent manner in case of any vehicle to vehicle collision or accidents. Here, in this case, vehicles use radio waves for communicating with each other and ultimately build up a communication network instantly while moving on the road itself. Army tactical mobile ad hoc networks- These networks are used by the military unit people which counts on the data rate for the real-time requirement or any kind of urgency and fast routing and data security as well as radio range. These rely on integrated systems. Some examples of these networks using the radio waveforms include the US army’s JTRS SRW. Ad hoc mobile systems are the best suited for these kinds of military communications because of their infrastructure-less nature the system and their fast operations as well as deployments. These Military mobile ad hoc network bear a wide range of good characteristics which include- wireless networks, no need for any fixed radio towers, security, its range, immediate operations, and robustness. These military mobile ad hoc networks are also used by the army hopping mine soldiers in the case when they are on the battlefield and hence communicate with each other in foreign terrains. These military mobile ad hoc networks are too easy to use. The networks are automatically created during the mission time and get disappeared when the mission gets over. Hence it is a kind of ‘on-fly’ network. Air Force and flying ad hoc networks- Flying ad hoc networks are the aerial vehicles that come up with significant mobility and hence provide connectivity to even remote areas. It is a kind of automatic flying vehicle with no pilot on it. These vehicles can be flown by the pilots on the ground or automatically flown with the help of pre designed plans for the networks. Even the public has access usage for these networks as these networks are used in 3D terrains or package delivery such as that of Amazon etc. Navy ad hoc networks- Navy ships generally use satellite communication systems and other maritime radio networks to communicate with each other or the ground station navy people. But such communications cause delays as well as have restricted and limited bandwidth which urges for a better wireless communication system. The wireless ad hoc networks provide fast and secure communication among different ships as well as navy people on the ships which helps them to have a better communication of multimedia data as well as sharing of images, etc in a much better way, especially in the battlefields. In short, these networks help in the best coordination of operations on the battlefield. Some of the defense companies like ‘Rockwell Collins’ have even produced products that help in communication between the two ships or between the ship and the shore. Different components of an ad hoc network are- Hardware – The ad hoc network do not have any kind of hardware components or infrastructure. They are just combined with the other networks’ systems. The only devices needed to create an ad hoc network are the end devices. The devices are fabricated with the transceiver to send or receive signals. And the devices like laptops or smartphones, etc are devised with the standard IEEE 802.11 so that they are capable of getting connected either to any infrastructure network or any ad hoc network.Software- The most important software component of an ad hoc network is the routing algorithm. Some of the popular routing algorithms include ‘Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector'(DSDV), which is a type of travel driven routing scheme for ad hoc networks. It uses a routing method which is based on the Distributed Bellman-Ford algorithm. This article hence deals with the ad hoc networks, covering up the features and main functions of each type of ad hoc networks and also including the two main components of the ad hoc networks. I hope that you all now have the exact idea about the ad hoc networks. Hope this article proves useful for my readers to get full knowledge about every kind of ad hoc network!